讲座题目：Behind Immigration Debates: Discourse, Policy and Reality of Muslim Integration in France, Québec and Canada
Jeffrey G. Reitz (Ph.D., FRSC) is the R.F. Harney Professor and Director of the Ethnic, Immigration and Pluralism Studies Program at the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto, and Professor and former Chair in the University’s Department of Sociology. He has published extensively on immigration and inter-group relations in Canada from comparative perspectives, and has frequently contributed to discussions of policies on immigration, multiculturalism and immigrant employment in Canada. He is co-author of Multiculturalism and Social Cohesion: Potentials and Challenges of Diversity (2009); recent articles have appeared in the International Migration Review, Ethnic and Racial Studies, the Journal of International Migration and Integration, Social Science Research, and Patterns of Prejudice. During 2012-2014 he was Marie Curie International Fellow at l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris, and is a Research Fellow with the Institute for Research on Public Policy in Montreal. In 2017-2017, he will be Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the City University of New York Graduate Center.
This paper compares the experiences of Muslim minorities in three contexts – France, Québec, and English Canada – each reflecting a different approach to immigrant integration as reflected in public discourse and policy. France’s republican model emphasizes the exclusion of religion from the public sphere; Canada’s multicultural model advocates official recognition of minority cultures; Québec shares Canada’s tradition of large-scale permanent immigration but embodies a unique intercultural discourse of integration, in some ways resembling France. A comparison of the social, economic and political integration of Muslim and non-Muslim minorities in these three settings draws on a variety of data sources including quantitative survey data and qualitative field interviews. While the public discourses on immigration in France, Quebec and English Canada reflect real differences in social values related to multiculturalism and religion, these differences are not as great as one might have thought, and in any case are not primary determinants of cross-setting differences in public attitudes to immigration, which depend more on actual characteristics of the immigrants arriving in respective countries. I find the actual Muslim/non-Muslim gap in integration to be significant in all three settings, and results from ethnic, cultural or racial differences, more than religion. The more visibly marginal status of Muslims in France compared to Canada including Quebec reflects their low levels of education, their large numbers, and the rigidities of French labor markets. Public discourses and debates matter most when embodied in laws that govern behavior, such as citizenship laws and headscarf bans in employment. Otherwise, social and political experiences in the community differ only slightly across settings.